Three-section staff

Three-section staff

The three-section staff, triple staff, three-part staff, originally sanjiegun (Chinese: 三節棍; pinyin: sānjiégùn; Jyutping: saam1 zit3 gwan3, or Chinese: 三節鞭; pinyin: sānjiébiān three-section whip) or sansetsukon in Japanese, is a Chinese flail weapon that consists of three wooden or metal staffs connected by metal rings or rope. The weapon is also known as 蟠龍棍 panlong gun, "coiling dragon staff". A more complicated version of the two section staff, the staves can be spun to gather momentum resulting in a powerful strike, or their articulation can be used to strike over or around a shield or other defense.

History and use

Although there is no historical evidence to support it, a popular modern-day legend states the weapon was made famous by Zhao Kuangyin, the first Emperor of the Song Dynasty (960 AD).[1]

Historically made of white oak, waxwood, or Chinese red maple, modern staves are constructed from rattan, bamboo, various hardwoods or aluminum. For optimum fit, each of the three sticks should be about the length of the combatant's arm {usually 60 centimetres (24 in) to 70 centimetres (28 in)} and have a combined diameter that easily fits in the hand {usually about 1.25 inches (32 mm)}. These are connected by chains of rings {usually of five inches (127 mm)}; modern versions use ball-and-socket joints.

The total length of the weapon is about the same as the Chinese staff (the gùn), and greater than that of the single staff (known in Japanese as a ). The larger size of a three-section staff allows for an increased reach compared to the staff. Some of the techniques are similar to that of the staff, so spinning moves over the head and behind the back, such as helicopter spins and neck rolls, can be practised with a regular staff. Other weapon techniques the three-section staff makes use of are similar to that of the pair of sticks used in escrima, a simple short chain, a whip, or the two-section staff. It is therefore advantageous for the user to have some familiarity with these weapons. The three-section staff has the advantage of being usable as a long-range (whip), mid-range (flail or two section staff) or a short-range (pair of escrima) weapon. Acting as an extension of the user's arms, the three-section staff can strike, flail, block, choke, trap, disarm and whip, often with different sections of the staff acting at the same time. The chains or binding ropes of the staff are used to entangle an opponent and their weapons. While it has three ranges, the three-section staff is best used as a short range weapon against longer-ranged weapons. In this configuration, a skilled practitioner can nearly simultaneously block an opponent's strike, trap his or her weapon, and disarm them while executing their own strike with the free end of the staff.

While some martial artists have held that the three-section staff was used on the battlefield to entangle horses' legs or to strike around shields, the complexity of the weapon and the length, difficulty of use, lack of sharp tips or edges and other advantages of such traditional battlefield weapons as spears, polearms (such as the yan yue dao), swords and so forth meant that the triple staff was more likely restricted to personal self-defense.

One significant weakness of chained weapons in general is a lack of control. At long and intermediate ranges, the strike of one ends not upon impact but on recoil; even the greatest martial arts masters must use valuable time regaining control of their weapon. Due to the length of the staff sections relative to the length of joining chains, the weapon suffers less from a lack of control than other more flexible chain weapons. In short range mode there are no control issues because the end sections are firmly in hand, and the middle section is unable to move independently. Training with the three-section staff is particularly difficult because it is a multi-mode complex weapon, and is not recommended for beginners. Foam covered versions are now sold to aid in training, but the blows received from the ends on recoil are a relatively rare risk. Instead, the greater danger is the painful impact of the chains or metal parts of the staff that the chains are anchored to upon the hands of the user. This occurs when the staff is improperly used in short range mode and the relative positions of staff sections are rapidly changed, serving as a strong deterrent to casual users. However, motivated self teachers will find the three-section staff and other flexible weapons to be the easiest to learn effectively. This is because flexible weapons provide instant feedback to the user. When used improperly, flexible weapons will either impact upon targets other than those desired, put the user off balance, injure the user, or otherwise be obviously out of control.

To experience the versatility of both single-staff and three-section staff, some manufactures have created a combination weapon made out of metal. The three sections, linked by chains as customary for this type of weapon, screw together to form one single staff. The transition to full staff to sectioned staff can be done in mid-combat with a few twists. Against an opponent, the transition is often masked, adding an element of surprise to the following attacks.

The ends of three-section staffs sometimes break, but can be replaced with pieces of similar weight and thickness to the other parts.

The three-section staff was brought to Okinawa from Fujian Province by Shinko Matayoshi, who incorporated it in Matayoshi Kobudo with two kata (sansetsukon dai ichi, sansetsukon dai ni) after 1935. Kobudo sansetsukon typically have shorter (usually 50–60 cm.) yet thicker (about 4–5 cm. in diameter) staffs. The sansetsukon is not to be confused with san bon nunchaku (三本ヌンチャク).

Three-section flails

  • Lian Zhu Shuang Tie Bian (連珠雙鐵鞭, lit. 'Linked bead double iron whip') is a variant of two-section staff (Tie Lian Jia Bang 鐵鏈夾棒, lit. 'Iron chain with clubs') flail that has two connected striking ends. It could be an early predecessor of the three-section staff.
  • Double-headed Flail (連珠棍 Lang Ya Lien | Langyalian) has long center staff and a shorter flail head on each end.[2]

In popular culture

  • San Te, character played by Gordon Liu invents the three-section staff in The 36th Chamber of Shaolin.
  • The three-section staff is one of Ling Tong's primary weapons from the Dynasty Warriors series.
  • Hideyoshi Toyotomi uses the three-section staff as his main weapon in the Samurai Warriors series.
  • In the webcomic Homestuck, the character Terezi at one point uses this as a weapon of choice, the alternative title of "Dragon Staff" referring to the character's recurring theme of the aforementioned mythological creature.
  • In Bleach, Ikkaku Madarame's sword has the supernatural ability to transform into either a spear or a bladed three-section staff and rapidly switch between these forms.
  • The 2003 version of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles features three-section staffs; one used by one of the Triceraton All-Stars, one by a warrior on the Battle Nexus Tournament, and a mystical one used by Mikey during the war with the Tengu Shredder.
  • The DC Comics TV series Arrow on the CW features the use of this weapon on episodes 2 ("The Candidate") and 10 ("Blood Debts") of its 4th season. The weapon was used by villain Anarky during fight sequences against the Green Arrow and Speedy.
  • In the manga The Seven Deadly Sins, the character Ban uses a 3 sectioned staff to fight although his preferred (but lost) weapon is a 4 sectioned staff.
  • In Suikoden II, Nanami fights with a sansetsukon.
  • In Suikoden V, the hero Freyjadour Falenas fights with a hybrid weapon, which can instantly become a long staff or a sansetsukon.
  • In Saiyuki, Son Goku can have his Nyoibo (magic staff) become a sansetsukon, which he uses on rare occasions.
  • In Shin Megami Tensei, the Sansetsukon can be bought quite early in the story. Its low attack is compensated by its accuracy and its ability to strike three times in a row.
  • In the 2006 movie Fearless, the protagonist Huo Yuanjia wields a three-section staff against the Japanese champion Tanaka, who wields a katana.
  • In Power Rangers Jungle Fury and its Japanese counterpart Gekiranger, a three-section staff is employed by the Jungle Pride Megazord.
  • In the Fatal Fury and The King of Fighters series, Billy Kane wields a bō that can become a sansetsukon.
  • In the arcade game Martial Champion, Goldor wields a three-section staff.
  • The Libra cloth in Saint Seiya features amongst its weapons a pair of sansetsukon.
  • In the manga B't X, the character Karen uses a sansetsukon as weapon.
  • In Devil May Cry 3: Dante's Awakening, Cerberus transforms into the three-section staff with an ice magic type. In Devil May Cry 5, defeating King Cerberus rewards Dante with an largely upgraded replacement of the original Cerberus weapon. King Cerberus comes with three different magic types which decides a different form (i.e., Fire shifts into a bo staff, Ice maintains its three stick sanhokon nunchakuform by default, and Lightning magically changes into a three-section staff.
  • In the otome game Shall We Date?: Ninja Shadow, Tsubaki Kusunoki's preferred weapon is a sansetsukon. The characters note how unpredictable this makes him in the battlefield.
  • In Final Fantasy XIII and Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII, the character Oerba Yun Fang wields dual-bladed spears that transform into three-section staffs.
  • In Jackie Chan Adventures, Gan, one of Daolon Wong's Dark Chi Warriors, uses a three section staff. Because they share the same chi, Gan can manipulate the weapon, able to telekinetically return it to his hand.
  • In Jujutsu Kaisen a three section staff named "Playful Cloud" was utilized to fight one of the antagonists in episodes 19 and 20.


  1. ^ "Flying Eagle Martial Arts Academy: Three-Section Staff". Archived from the original on April 8, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-02.
  2. ^ "Flails & Soft Weapons".

Further reading

  • Rick L. Wing (2009). The Classical Three-Section Staff. Blue Snake Books. ISBN 978-1-58394-262-8.
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